All You Should Know About Haemorrhoids: Causes and Treatment

by Samit Patel on June 13, 2022

Our body comprises various systems that contribute to our bodily functions. Among them is the digestive system, which is responsible for breaking down food and turning it into energy. However, as with any other body part, it can experience problems that cause us to feel pain. One example of this is haemorrhoids.

Haemorrhoids are enlarged, congested veins found under the rectum's or anus' surface tissue. These veins are damaged and cause the blood to pool, which causes itchiness in pain. About 50% of adults have them, and it's a massive problem because it can cause many issues, such as difficulty moving and excreting waste.

Not many people are aware of haemorrhoids beyond the pain they cause, so we'll discuss the details in this article.

Types of Haemorrhoids

There are two types of haemorrhoids. These include:

Internal Haemorrhoids

Internal haemorrhoids stem from the veins inside the rectum, making them hard to notice. However, they can cause massive pain and bleeding, especially when passing a stool. You might see traces of blood on your stool, the toilet paper when wiping your bottom, or on the toilet bowl. Internal haemorrhoids also cause mucus to leak from the rectum to the anus, which causes itchiness.

Aside from when passing a stool, internal haemorrhoids aren't usually painful. However, it can hang out from the anus when it grows large enough. This is referred to as a prolapsed haemorrhoid, which causes increased swelling and pain.

External Haemorrhoids

On the other hand, external haemorrhoids come from the veins of the anus. They're more dangerous because they're situated outside, causing immense pain and irritation. They can also cause blood clot formation in the haemorrhoid, which causes more pain for about three days before the clot subsides.

Once it subsides, the affected part of the anal skin can be loose since the haemorrhoid stretched it. This is referred to as a skin tag, which gives the anus a ruffled appearance. While it doesn't cause a skin tag, it can be highly uncomfortable to wash your bottom. You should use a moist disposable wipe instead of dry toilet paper to avoid coming into contact with a rough surface.

What Causes Haemorrhoids?

It's not exactly understood what causes them, but increased pressure around the rectal and anal areas is believed to be involved. In turn, this pressure could be caused by the following:

  • Forcibly passing a stool
  • Diarrhoea
  • Being overweight or obese
  • Sitting on the toilet for a long time
  • Pregnancy and childbirth

It's also worth noting that some people can inherit the tendency to develop haemorrhoids. It could be because of the veins in the rectal and anal walls’ weakness or simply because of ageing.

Beyond that, constipation can also increase the chances of developing haemorrhoids. Failure to pass a stool when needed, eating a low-fibre diet, not exercising regularly, and not drinking enough water are other factors that can cause one to develop haemorrhoids.

Treatment Options

While haemorrhoids are painful, that doesn't mean they can't be treated. Here are some possible options:

Lifestyle Changes

Simple lifestyle changes, such as eating a fibre-rich diet, drinking more water, and regular exercise, can make a difference in addressing haemorrhoids.

Topical Treatments

You'll have plenty of options when treating haemorrhoids with prescription and over-the-counter creams and ointments to help alleviate the discomfort. However, you should consult with a medical professional first and listen to their instructions because they might find an underlying issue that causes your problems.

Coagulation Procedures

In some cases, doctors opt to tie off the haemorrhoids with haemorrhoidectomy. It involves cutting off the swollen portion of the haemorrhoid, followed by some stapling and squeezing.


Sclerotherapy refers to injecting the haemorrhoids with chemicals to make them shrink and lessen the pain. It could take up to a few days, but the effects are worth it.


Remember that haemorrhoids are common and usually don't lead to any severe side effects. As long as you're aware of the symptoms, you'll be able to notice when the condition worsens. You'll have plenty of treatment options, so you don't have to endure it.

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